Thursday, June 30, 2011

LDSA: Best Indicator for Air-Pollution Detection

Lung-Deposited Surface Area (LDSA) appears to be the pretty much the new standard for Air-Pollution Detection and will subsequently replace less adequate Particle Mass / Particle Number Count measurements.
Leading experts contend that surface area, rather than mass, should be measured for nanoparticles, because nanoparticles have far more surface area for the same amount of mass. This increases the chance of reaction with the body.

and another slightly smaller und less costly product is on the market, the DISCmini, developed by Matter Aerosol, now a Testo Company:

Negative health effects due to nanoparticles appear to correlate particularly well with number concentration or surface. Epidemiological and toxicological studies are still mainly based on total mass, or they use fuzzy proxies like "distance from a busy road" to describe personal exposure, although the health-related effects of particle number concentration are well known. We believe that this contradictory situation is due to the lack of adequate sensors on the market.

This gap is now closed with Matter Aerosol’s handheld version of the “Diffusion Size Classifier”, DiSCmini. The DiSCmini is a portable sensor for the measurement of particle number and average diameter with a time resolution of up to 1 second (1 Hz). The simultaneous capture of number concentration and particle size allows the specification of other characteristic parameters, such as the particles surface (Lung Deposited Surface Area, LDSA). The instrument is battery powered with a lifetime of up to 8 hours; data can be recorded on a memory card, and transferred to a external computer via USB cable.

PS. updated and corrected march 2014.

GDi-Technology reproduces Diesel-Failures for Gasoline

Quote from Zuberi, January 2007:
But somehow there is no discussion of the PM (soot) emissions from GDI engines??? Because the combustion process is a hybrid of the gasoline spark ignition and the diesel compression engine, there is a natural increase in soot emissions from a GDi engine (see here and here, for example). This similarity is more easily identified when particule number concentration is measured (instead of particulate mass). The increased PM emissions have been documented well in several studies in europe, and in fact, the Euro 6 emission regulations are expected to require GDI to meet the same PM/NOx criteria as the diesel engines in europe. While in the short term this may be possible using engine control technologies, and operating in certain regions of the engine map, this may not be possible for a long time. Under transient conditions GDi engines produce about as much soot as a modern diesel engine, and hence to reach PM regulatory limits, a particulate filter may be required.

Friday, June 17, 2011

Asthma and diesel fumes

Studies have made it more clear that microscopic particles are a trigger for asthma attacks, and could work beside pollen to set off severe attacks by inflaming the lungs, he said.

But the latest findings also show particulates are so small that they can sneak through the lungs' natural defences and damage the body's cells,

MAY 4, 2011 Wall Street Journal
Asthma Rates Climb for Children, Adults
Some 24.6 million Americans had asthma in 2009, up from 20.3 million at the beginning of the decade, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, affected 8.2% of all U.S. residents in 2009, up from 7.3% in 2001, an increase of 12.3%, the CDC said

Thursday, June 16, 2011

black carbon overlooked

Study: Modern clean diesels not that green; black carbon overlooked:

Each effect will vary from vehicle to vehicle but the point is they are not accounting for this [black carbon]. The claim that barely detectable black carbon causes no warming is misinformation.

"Diesel Cars and Environmental Impact According to the research at Standford University, Despite lower carbon dioxide emissions, diesel cars may promote more global warming than gasoline cars Laws that favor the use of diesel, rather than gasoline, engines in cars may actually encourage global warming, according to a new study. Although diesel cars obtain 25 to 35 percent better mileage and emit less carbon dioxide than similar gasoline cars, they can emit 25 to 400 times more mass of particulate black carbon and associated organic matter ("soot") per kilometer [mile]. The warming due to soot may more than offset the cooling due to reduced carbon dioxide emissions over several decades, according to Mark Z. Jacobson, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University."

"The warming due to soot may more than offset the cooling due to reduced carbon dioxide emissions over several decades, according to Mark Z. Jacobson, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University."

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Potential of Soot Particles of "Low-Emission" Diesel Engines

"At the same mass concentration, soot particles produced under lowemission conditions exhibit a much higher toxic and inflammatory potential than particles from an old diesel engine operating under black smoke conditions. This effect is assigned to the defective surface structure of Euro IV diesel soot, rendering it highly active. Our findings indicate that the reduction of soot emission in terms of mass does not automatically lead to a reduction of the toxic effects toward humans when the structure and functionality of the soot is changed, and thereby the biological accessibility and inflammatory potential of soot is increased."

Debunking 'Clean' Diesel Myths

Experts conducting an environmental analysis into the effect of diesel emissions on the environment have discovered that modern cars are not as green as first thought.

Mark Jacobson of Stanford University told Reuters that many of the supposed eco-friendly diesel cars currently on the market are damaging to the environment.

"Even with a particle trap (filter), all the diesels have an impact," said Stanford University's Mark Jacobson.
"Each effect will vary from vehicle to vehicle but the point is they are not accounting for this. The claim that barely detectable black carbon causes no warming is misinformation."

Diesel engines also produce more particulate matter than petrol-fuelled cars.
These particles of soot can exacerbate health problems such as asthma and can contribute to global warming.
New diesel car tailpipes are fitted with filters that trap both particulate matter and nitrogen oxide fumes. But these don't necessarily cure the problem, says Jacobson. "You have a trade-off - a particle trap reduces the efficiency of the nitrogen oxide filter, and vice versa," he says. According to Jacobson, cars fitted with filters still emit more nitrogen oxide than petrol vehicles.

More 'Clean' Diesel Lies...

The Yahoo Green Section features an article by Auto-Journalist Nick Chambers, a story on "clean"-Diesel from feb 24. 2011
The article ignores the elevated NO2-Emissions by new diesel engines, the carcinogenic ultra fine diesel-soot particulate matter which even with filters remain a problem...

Diesel Ban in Athens and Thessaloniki since early 90thies

In Greece Diesel Cars are banned from Athens and Thessaloniki since the early 90thies.

The government's ban on diesel vehicles within Athens city & the early 1990s initiatives to enhance car emissions have greatly contributed to better atmospheric conditions in the basin.

11 April 2011

But lobbyists like the greek "Association of Motor Vehicle Importers Representatives" are trying to achieve an annulment of the diesel ban... Another Pro-Diesel-Lobbyist called Stavros Xarchakos claimed 2003 that new Diesel engines where much safer, which must be bluntly put called a lie. New falsely called 'Clean'-Diesel Engines have much higher emissions of ultra fine diesel soot particles, with even higher toxicity levels. UPDATE July 2012: The Diesel Ban in Athens and Thessaloniki has been overturned.

Looking Back: Diesel Ban legislation

2002 California
California: Court Backs Ban On Diesel Vehicles
Government agencies in Southern California can be forced to give up diesel vehicles and buy alternative-fuel cars, trucks and buses with cleaner emissions, an appeals court has ruled.

2002 India
Challenge to diesel ban has health lobby fuming
Health and environment activists are aghast at a new automobile fuel policy that sets the clock back on a Supreme Court order banning diesel use by buses and taxis plying India's smoggy capital, and replacing it with environment-friendly compressed natural gas...

2010 Spain
Madrid is preparing a regulation that will prevent the purchase of new taxis and urban buses running on diesel.
This decision was taken because diesel models emit too much NO2. Madrid is the first European city that acts against Diesel technology for environmental reasons. The municipality will not force to buy any special technology, but will establish a control not only in terms of CO2 but also regarding the NO2 emissions.

Debunking "Clean"-Diesel-Propaganda

With lengthly papers and propaganda websites the well financed Diesel-Lobby tries to downplay the health issues and the fact that diesel fumes are the main source of climate change promoter black carbon.

The paper "Climate Change, Black Carbon & Clean Diesel" denies the fact that "Clean Diesel" - which it is not – is a major source of black carbon. Was it written with the help of Burson-Marsteller?

Obviously the Diesel-Lobby tries to ignore and deny the fact, that climate scientists see Black Carbon as an important climate factor
Black Carbon: An Overlooked Climate Factor,8599,1938379,00.html

Both following Diesel-Fuel-Propaganda-websites promote Diesel and deny the massive health problems caused by even new Diesel-Engines:

Is Burson-Marsteller running the "Clean" Diesel Fuel-Campaign? It's verly likely...
Anti-fossil fuel tax campaign
In 1993 Burson-Marsteller led a $1.8m campaign to defeat a proposed tax on fossil fuels. President Clinton’s BTU (British Thermal Unit) Tax was the U.S.'s most ambitious measure to combat climate change. The BTU Tax was to be levied on fossil fuels, specifically on the heat generating capacity of fossil fuels. (A BTU is a measure of how much heat a given mass of fuel releases.) A $.25 per gallon gasoline tax and other levies were at the center of Clinton’s plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000. The National Association of Manufacturers (a sponsor of the Global Climate Coalition), the American Petroleum Institute, more than 1,600 large and small companies, as well as farmers organized to create the American Energy Alliance (AEA), specifically to derail the BTU tax.

The AEA hired B-M to orchestrate the campaign. Deploying some 45 staff in 23 states, B-M organised a "grassroots" letter writing and phone-in campaign. It placed anti-BTU articles and editorials in the press, commissioned sceptical economists to write reports, and obtained media access for businesspeople to express their views. It also lobbied against the tax in Washington, D.C. Congressional support for the BTU tax quickly withered and Clinton’s plan was defeated. Congress voted for the tax to be kept below $.05 per gallon. Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen described the BTU campaign as “one of the most sophisticated jobs I've seen by lobbyists in a long time.”

Ban Diesel by 2015, not 2050!

More Diesel Ban in the Headlines

'Ban petrol and diesel cars from London's roads by 2050'
Petrol and diesel-powered cars should be banned from London's streets by 2050, the European Commission said today.

Commentary: Delusional tactics by polluter-friendly legislaters und the petrolium industry,

looking back in 1998
news: India's auto makers oppose plans to ban diesel cars in Delhi
1 Dec 1998 ... According to press reports, the Delhi state government has been considering a ban on sales of diesel cars in the India capital to bring down ...

in 2009 California:
Port of Oakland votes to ban dirty diesel trucks
People living near the Port of Oakland may soon breathe easier after the Port Commission on Tuesday voted to ban trucks that burn dirty diesel fuel.
But the problem remains: Black Carbon remains a problem with new diesel engines and the health issues are even more severe due to finer soot particles which cause more damage.

Diesel Ban in the Headlines

Let’s Ban Diesel Vehicles In And Around The Himalayan Region
Indian Minister of Environment & Forest Mr. Jairam Ramesh has understandably opposed the developed countries’ attempt to include the “black carbon” issue in the main framework of the climate negotiations.

Ban on Petrol and Diesel Cars?
Norway’s Finance Minster, Kristin Halvorsen, has proposed to ban petrol cars by 2015 in order to lower CO2 emissions and encourage car manufacturers to begin making more environmentally friendly models.

Norway’s Finance Minster, Kristin Halvorsen has proposed the move which if implemented, will see a ban on all petrol and diesel car sales in Norway from 2015, allowing only electric, biofuel, hydrogen or hybrid cars to be sold on the forecourts.

Centre rejects Delhi government's proposal to ban diesel cars

Delhi HC may ban diesel cars
Diesel cars have got into the cross hairs of the Delhi high court. It feels that they defeat the intent of the 2001 Supreme Court order to shift public transport to use compressed natural gas. The car industry is upset.
Jagdish Khattar, MD, Maruti Udyog said, “We have to see why diesel is so popular. It’s because of the price difference. We need to correct that.”

The biggest player in diesel car market, Tata Motors is in the midst of a Rs 12,000 crore capacity expansion and product development plan. 70% of Hyundai Verna's sales are diesel and about 70% of Ford Fiesta's. Ford has recently launched a diesel variant of Fusion and General Motors has also launched a diesel version of Optra.

Ban Diesel-Exhaust!

Health effects of diesel exhaust:
- Coughs and phlegm
- Lightheadedness, nausea
- Increased susceptibility to allergens like dust or pollen
- Irritation of eyes, nose, throat and lungs
- Inflammation of lungs, and increased asthma attacks
- Respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Lowered resistance to respiratory infection
- Macrophages overwhelmed by particles result in immune reactions that cause inflammation and 'sticky' blood, increasing risk of clots and both heart and lung disease
- Mutations in chromosomes and damage to DNA
- For people exposed chronically to 1µg/m3 of diesel exhaust, a rate of lung cancer in the range of 34 to 650 people per million
Possible cause of multiple chemical sensitisation, leading to changes in red and white blood cells, bleeding, liver damage, and degeneration of the nervous system.